Many Chinese believe that the United States represents the core values of Western civilization and is in conflict with Eastern civilization which is represented by China. As a result, Chinese leadership views any American influence as a challenge to China's political stability. The Western view of China.
China was the first to do so, opening up a limited and controlled zone in the province of Canton to Western merchants. There, a special bureaucracy was established to deal with these Westerners and to contain their influence. By 1853, Japan too began opening its ports to Western merchants, particularly after they saw the naval power of the West.